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Full text of "Indians at work"

INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




DECEMBER 1, 1937 

A NEW5 SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

^m^soAj^^^OFFICE ^ OF' INPHAN -AFFAIRS - 

WASHINGTON;, P<= Co . 



INDj[ANS AT WORK 

CXDNTENTS OF THE ISSUE5 OF DECEMBBR 1, 1937 

Vol vane V Nianter 4 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Bread Ten Broeck Williamson 7 

Foiirteen P\ieblos To Care For Own 

Needy Members 14 

Another IndiaJi Gets Important 

Service Post 15 

Crow Fair Is Scene Of Colorful 

Gather ing 15 

Governmental Reorganization And 

"^^-^ Conservation John Collier 16 

Reorgsjiization News 19 

CCC - ID Work At Pawnee Agency 20 

Group Sacrifice And Individual 

Sacrifice For Conservation 21 

"A Calendar Of Annual Events In 

New Mexico" 22 

A Word Ahout Cooperation Edward Huberman 23 

CCC Workers Have Obtained Outside 

Jobs At Mission Agency Robert A. Wehr 25 

\/ Revolving Credit Fund 26 

Life In An Indian CCC Camp Erik W. Allstrom 2? 

The Straddle Between Cultures D'Arcy McNickle 29 

George Inyo 31 

Special Trachoma Advisory Committee 

Holds First Meeting Dr. J. 6. Townsend 32 

CCC - ID Camps In District Nvimber 

Two Excel In Athletics John Henry Mitchell 33 

New President For Indian Council 

Fire 34 

Cheyenne River Tribal Council Makes 

Tour To Learn Assets And Plans. . Arthur L. Holding 35 

A Message From Fort Esll, Idaho ... Frank Randall 37 

This Year's Cattle Sale At Fort 

Hall Tops Previous Records 37 

Ma.ry Kills Two's Party Rev. Placidus F. Sialm 38 

First Annual Hopi Fair 39 

Navajo - Hopi Health Personnel Meet 40 

From CCC - ID Reports 41 



IN 



VOLUME Y 















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DLCLM5ER 1,1937 



NUMBER. 4 



Died, on Octoter 30, from ceretral hemorrhage, Dr. John 
R. Haynes, of Los Angeles. The name of Dr. Haynes is -unknown to 
most Indiaiis and to most Service employees; but his services to In- 
dians had been many and importEJit. And the fact that he gave to In- 
dian matters a major importance in his own thinking is significant; 
for Dr. Haynes chose tho\:ightfTilly his causes, and was identified 
with many of the major struggles of our time. 

Dr. Haynes, whose death came in his eighty-fifth year, 
was one of the two most many-sided individuals I have ever known. 
The other was Senator Bronson M. Cutting, of New Mexico. But more 
than any other without exception, Dr. Haynes put into his nvunerous 
convictions and devotions (as well as his scientific curiosities) 
an intensity of application, a read.iness for brief or sustained work 
or battle, and a joy of effort, which affected those who came near 
him in the way that a sudden critical increase in avails-ble oxygen 



might have done. But that comparison is misleading; for most of 
all it was the lifelong-sustained, always slowly hroadening, im- 
mediate and remote purposefulness of his will and thought, which 
affected those who knew him like the "shadow of a great rock in a 
weary land." 

For nearly forty years Dr. Haynes was a practicing physi- 
cian in Philadelphia and later in Los Angeles. He was utterly the 
physician ajid the scientist and such he remained till the end. But 
social prohlems - the prohlem, comprehensively, of increased posi- 
tive liberty within and through increased social action - were in 
his thoiight always, and drew him into a series of initiatives which 
made history. He was the "father", and to the day of his last ill- 
ness the most energetic protector, of direct legislation (the ini- 
tiative, referendvim, and recall) on the Pacific Coast. He helped 
to establish, and until his death was the ma-in moving force in, the 
largest and most successful demonstration of m-unicipal ownership 
of water, light, and power in America - probably in the world - the 
Water and Power Board of Los Angeles. He pioneered in "negative 
eugenics" - the sterilization of the unfit. He served during its 
formative period as head of one of the country's really prod\ictive 
civil service boards (Los Angeles). He pioneered in mine safety 
investigation and legislation. He worked for, and financially as- 
sisted, the adult education movement and movements toward socialized 
medicine. His considerable wealth, all earned by his own labor, was 



c\irrently (as now) devoted to his public purposes; but his contri- 
butions totaling hundreds of thousands of dollars were but stipple- 
mental to his contributions of work, and were insignificant when 
compared with his gifts of himself to causes - gifts of wise poli- 
tical decision, of loyalty to co-workers and enthusiasm for the young, 
of a statesman's initiative, of a marvelous richness of practical 
understanding drawn from important work in many fields across fifty 
years. 

Dr. Haynes took vcp the Indians' cause in a dark hour - 
the Albert B. Fall time of 1922-23. For some years, the Pueblos' 
struggle represented, and was waged in behalf of, all the Indians. 
That striiggle well might have been defeated but for Dr. Haynes. 
Merely as one item, mentioned because of it« concreteness, he donated 
nearly forty thousand dollars to the legal costs of that particular 
struggle. The recent adjustment in behalf of the Owens Valley Cal- 
ifornia Indians, whereby Los Angeles is exchanging, for values of 
some $80,000, other values exceeding $250,000, for Indian benefit, 
is a recent item whose existence is due largely to Dr. Haynes. 

I last saw Dr. Haynes during the recent STmuner. He had 
recovered from a first cerebral hemorrhage and he knew that a sec- 
ond, perhaps a final, stroke might come at any time. Conserving 
all his energies, he was doing from his sick-bed a heavy day's work 
every day. We talked for hoiars - about international and national 
matters, Indian matters, soil conservation ma.tters, the future of 



his own social enterprises, immediate and remote auestions of power 
and light, applied eugenics. We discussed - or rather, he discussed 
- then, subjects more lasting and universal: nature, the enigma of 
pain and of evil, the buried powers of the hioman brain, the doubt 
whether man shall prove able, soon enough, to master the technolo- 
gies man has created - the "doubtfiol doom of humankind." His ver- 
satility was so much greater than my own, his spiritual intensity 
was much more adeqviate, that it was I who seemed the old man and he 
the young. I "heard the trumpet sounding on the plain of a thous- 
and years." Then we saw each other no more. 

This is not an obitT:ary, btit a note upon a life - to 
which Indians are profoundly indebted - which goes on and on. 



Camp Fire Girls of America have instituted Conservation 
Tear. More than 300,000 girls will study, and will do practical 
local work in, conservation of landscape, wild life, wildwoods, 
soil, water. Indian tradition and imp-ulse entered largely into 
Camp Fire Girls when the movement was started 25 years ago. Con- 
servation enterprise by Indians and on Indian lands partly inspired 
Conservation Year for the orgajiization. The extraordinary stock 
reduction, range adjustment and conservation work of Laguna and 
Acoma Ptieblos was described to the Camp Fire delegates at their 
yearly convention in Dallas, Texas, October 15. These girls and 



their wise leaders can achieve profound things if they work ctmni- 

latively. 

* * * * 

At Fort Hall, Idaho, as at Uintah and Ouray, Utah, I 
found Indians acting splendidly hut mentally confused heyond a cer- 
tain point. What makes the mental confusion? Primarily it is the 
stark irrationality which has heen imposed hy land allotment plus 
hadly considered irriea-tion enterprises. Through land allotment 
a stubborn personal property sentiment was planted in Indians; 
and this same allotment system defeats the personal property senti- 
ment, because as allotments become fractionated they vanish as ef- 
fective property. Add to this condition what took place at Fort 
Hall: the building of an irrigation system, in excess of the wa- 
ter supnly, without previous soil surveys, watering allotments 
that are permanently sub-marginal as farm land. Against de facto 
irrationalities like these, the Indian mind hurls itself in vain. 
The Reorganization Act does not dissolve these inherited facts. 

But both at Fort Hall and at Uintah and Ouray, right 
now, the facts are being so fully explored, and are being reduced 
to statement so simple, that it may be hoped the Indian mind (as 
well as the Indian Service's) can see steadily and whole the entire 
situation and its near and remote remedies. Fine work by T. C.B.I. A. 
is nearing completion at these reservations. (Technical Coopera- 



tion, Bioreau of Indian Affairs, Soil Conservation Service, Allan 

Harper, director.) 

* * * * 

Meetings in Oklahoma, cslled "by Senator Elmer Thomas as 
record hearings of the Senate's Indian investigation committee, 
did not move at all in the direction of windy or of irrelevant 
criticism. Nearly all Oklahoma tribes spoke through representa- 
tives. Not one groTop, not one individual even, called for the 
ahandonment of the Indian Reorganization Act or the Oklahoma In- 
dian lelfare Act. There was criticism "a - plenty", but all of it 
was realistic, much of it was kindlier, more temperate than the 
facts called for, and (save for a long list of -orovocative hypothet- 
ical o.uestions by one witness at Muskogee) every utterance was 
courteous, dignified, himianly considerate. Chairmsn Will Rogers, 
of the House Indian Committee, attended the meetings, along with 
members of the OtJ-ahoma delega.tion. Senator Thomas, with success 
as well as with patience, helped every Indian spokesman to register 
effectually. The meetings brought to the Indian Service much that 
it needed to know. 



£2- 





Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



BREAD 
A Story in Pictures of Wheat gulture at Jemez PaeMo 




By 
Ten Broeck Williamson, 
Soil Conservation Service 



(Photographs "by the 

author, courtesy of the 

Soil Conservation 

Service) 



Jemez Pueblo, an ancient 
adohe Indian town of some 650 popula- 
tion, lies on the Jemez River, a trib- 
utary of the Rio Grande, fifty miles 
northwest of Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
The life of the Jemez Indiaxis moves in 
a measiored rhythm from season to sea- 
son, from crop to crop. 

This is the story of wheat 
at Jemez - from the grain they plaat 
and harvest to the bread they bake. 

Wheat is planted at Jemez 
Pueblo for a period of two weeks com- 
mencing about March 15. It is sown 
on unplowed soil, usually in a field 
which was planted to corn the previous 
season. 





After sowing, 
the wheat is Tjlowed under. 



After the wheat field is 
plowed, it is ridged for irrigation. 
This ridging is done by hand, with 
the large pueblo -type hoe, which is, 
in reality, a square-pointed shovel, 
the neck of which has been reshaTjed. 





During the warm months of 
spring and early summer, the wheat 
grows rapidly. It is irrigated once a 
week. The irrigation systems at Jemez 
and other -oiieblos go back to pre-Span- 
ish times. They are kept up by pains- 
taking commxmity effort. 










The wheat is 
ready to harvest hy the 
middle of Aiigust. It 
is cut by hand with a 
sickle - Puehlo regula- 
tions have prohihited 
the cutting of wheat 
with a machine. As a 
matter of fact, most of 
the plots are too small 
to make the use of a 
machine harvester prac- 
ticable. 



!®AS 



tf^^*' 



»* 



'p. 



After <irying 
in the field for sever- 
al days, the wheat is 
hauled to a thresh in'g 
floor on the open ridges 
near the Pueblo. 

In construct- 
ing a threshing floor, a 
circular area about 
thirty feet in diameter 
is leveled and cleared 
of all vegetation. If 
the natural surface is 
not hard, a floor is 
made by filling a six- 
inch excavation with a- 
dobe clay. When this 
is nearly dry, goats are 

driven about in the area until the clay is well-packed. The floor is en- 
closed by a pole fence and the ^eat is piled in the center to a height of 
eight or ten feet. 



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m^^ 


p«^ 


mm 




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_, 


fe*'' 


■«'*^*« - 




w* 



Horses are 
led into this wheat- 
filled threshing floor 
and are driven around 
and around, first in 
one direction and then 
in the other, until the 
pile is flattened and 
every grain of wheat 
has been released by 
the pounding hooves. 
This phase of the 
threshing takes about 
a half- day. 



V 



^-^^. . * 





-"•ktov. 




Next, the threshers, using pitch- 
forks, toss the straw into the air. It is 
in this and in the following processes tha,t 
the work is dependent upon a favorable 
breeze, making it so necessary to build the 
threshing floors in a hi^ windy location. 

As the straw is tossed into the 
air, it blows away, leaving the chaff and 
the grain. When this residue is thrown in- 
to the air with shovels, the chaff is car- 
ried off and the threshed grains remain on 
the floor. 

This is threshing the old way, 
without machinery. But beginning in the 
summer of 1937 the Pueblo threshed with its 
new machine which, although less pictior- 
esque, is far more efficient. 



10 




The sacked nheat is hauled 
home to be stored and used throughout 
the year. It is grotind from time to 
time and used in making "bread, or it Is 
taken to the store and traded for food 
and clothing. Selected grain is saved 
for use in next year's planting. 

Such is the course of wheat 

until it has been harvested. In its 

route from bin to the table, it never 

leaves the Pueblo of Jemez. Before it 

can be baked, the wheat must be cleaned, 
washed and groTind. 

The Jemez housewife selects 
the amount of wheat which she wishes to 
have ground and talces it to her flat 
housetop or to a suitable windy location 
for a final winnowing. Holding the 
grain high over her head in a pan or 
basket, she spills it slowly onto a can- 
vas or a blanket while the wind carries 
off the final bits of chaff and other 
refuse . 



After this win- 
no?ring, the wheat is 
washed in an irrigation 
ditch or in the river in 
a sturdy Jemez yucca 
ring-basket. After being 
spread on a canvas to 
dry, the wheat is ready 
to be ground. 




11 




The quality of the grind is 
determined by how soon after washing 
the wheat is taken to the miller. The 
wetter the wheat, the finer will be 
the housewife's flotir. 



There are two flour mills at 
Jemez, one on either side of the river. 
Both are now run by water-power, al- 
thou^ until recently one of the mills 
was operated by electricity. 

At the mill the wheat is 
placed in a wooden hopper above the 
millstones of mal-oais, a course lava 
rock. The upper stone, fastened di- 
rectly to the water wheel below, re- 
volves on the lower stone. As the 
stone turns, wheat trickles from the 
bin, a few grains at a time, and 
passes between the stones. The miller 
receives about one-tenth of the flour 
as his fee. 




12 




Almos 
the year, but e 
before a feast- 
dance, one may 
biorning in the 
outdoor Jemez o 
is a sign that 
house dough is 
and loaves are 



t any day in 
specially 
day or a 
see fires 
dome- shaped 
vens . It 
inside the 
being kneaded 
being shaped. 



For an hour and a 
half to two hours, a cedar 
fire is burned in the oven. 
Next, the coals are raJced 
out with a wet rag fastened 
to a pole and bran is sprin- 
kled on the oven floor to 
test the heat. If the bran 
burns, or turns dark rapid- 
ly, the oven is too warm and must be cooled by dousing it with water. Oc- 
casionally dried com husks are used In the same manner to test the oven heat. 



When the oven 
is ready, the loaves (us- 
ually shaped like a bis- 
cuit or a large parker- 
house roll) are carried 
from the house on boards 
polished from long use. 
Deftly, the loaves are 
placed on a long-handled 
wooden paddle and depos- 
ited on the oven floor, 
which usually holds twen- 
ty loaves. The oven 
opening is then sealed 
with a board or a slab 
of rock. Often the seal 
is made air-tight by 
plastering aroimd the 
slab with adobe mxid. 




13 




In forty-five minutes to 
an hour the oven is opened and the 
"brown, thick-crusted loaves are 
removed. 

The Jeraez woman balances 
on her head a basket of the warm, 
fragrant loaves, and proudly car- 
ries them to her home, there to 
place them on the table for the 
enjoyment of her family sjid her 
guests. 

Thus is completed the 
field-to-table cycle of Jemez 
wheat . 



K)URTBEIT PUEBLOS TO GAHS FOR OW MSSDY MBMERS THROUGH 
DOMTIONS OP GAMES GOODS 

A gratifying evidence of the benefits resulting from Re- 
habilitation expenditures is shown in a letter from Dr. Sophie D. 
Aberle, Superintendent of the United Pueblos Agency in New Mexico, 
who writes: 

"In appreciation of the canning equipment purchased 
from Rehabilitation money for the Pueblos, fourteen 
pueblos agreed to can extra food each year to be held in 
storage and given out by the Governor and Council of 
each village, on order of the Go^^emor, for the support 
of the sick and needy. 

"This should eliminate the necessity of sv^rplying 
the Pueblo Indians with rations hereafter." 



14 



ANOTHER INDIAN GETS IMPORTANT SERVICE POST 



Archie Phinney, Nez Perce, was appointed in Octoter as 
field agent for Indian Organization in the Great Lakes area of 
Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. He fills the vacancy created 
"by the promotion of Peru Farver to the stqjerintendency of the Tomah 
Agency in Wisconsin. 

Phinney was horn on the Fort Lapwai Reservation, attended 
local schools, then went to Haskell Institute and later to the Uni- 
versity of Kansas from which he graduated in 1926. He worked for 
two years in the Washington Office of the Indian Service, meanwhile 
taking ni^t courses in ethnology at George Washington University. 
Beginning in 1928 in New York he studied anthropology at New York 
University, concurrently performing settlement work for the Uni- 
versity's Bureau of Community Research and Service. He also did 
work at Columbia University which centered around research on Indian 
tribal life and included an eight-months' study among his own Nez 
Perce people. 

In 1932 Mr. Phinney went to Europe and Asia on a fellow- 
ship arrangement which was sponsored jointly hy Columbia University 
and the Leningrad Academy of Sciences, and which permitted him to 
work and study among nrimitive peoples. Mr. Phinney 's work was a 
part of a program of assisting minority groups, through economic 
rehabilitation, through study of their customs and resources and 
throvi^ fostering local initiative. 

All of the seven organization field agents in the Service 
are of Indian blood: Ben Dwight, Choctaw; A. A. Exendine, Cherokee; 
Donald Hagerty, Blackfeet; George La Vatta, Shoshone; Kenneth Mar- 
mon, Laguna; Ben Re if el, Sioiax. 

4f m * * * * 

CK)W FAIR IS SCENE OF COLORFUL GATHERING 



The pictures shown on the cover and as the frontispiece are 
from the second annual Crow Fair, held during the first week in Sep- 
tember. The pictures can give little idea of the colorfulness of 
this gathering which brought together not only Crows but Cheyennes, 
Osages, Kiowas, Gros Ventres, Nez Perce, Sioux, Arapahoes, Crees, 
Shoshcnes, and Blackfeet Indians from neighboring reservations. The 
fair was planned by the Crows and only Indians took part in it. 
Parades, races, calf roping, bronco busting, biiffalo riding and oth- 
er rodeo events filled the days; Indian dances were held during the 
evenings. Education Day was marked by a parade of Crow students. 
The final da.y - "give-away day" - concluded with a buffalo feast for 
visiting tribes. 

15 



QOTEBM ENIAL BEO RGAKIZATIOU 
AHD OOUSERVATIOH 

By John Collier 

During my recent trip in the West, I encoimtered nvuner- 
ous puzzling misunderstandings concerning the President's program 
for the Reorganization of the Executive Departments. This caused 
me to reread the President's messa-ge to Congress of Jammry 12, 
last, and the 70-page report of the President's Committee on Reor- 
ganization, transmitted to Congress with a message. In the report, 
I came vgjon dozens - indeed scores - of particular propositions 
which, separated from the total trend of the report, might provide 
food for dehate. The report itself is more an indication of prin- 
ciples than 8X1 insistence t5)on detailed changes. It is an effort 
to move from comparative chaos to somewhat more of simplicity and 
order. But I am going to comment tpon just one of the misunder- 
standings which I encountered on my journey. 

The Committee recommends that there be created a Depart- 
ment of Conservation which "should take over most of the activities 
of the present Department of Interior." The Committee points out 
conservation is one of the five "great thrusts Thich have come to 
the surfa-ce in the last generation, not only in this country hut 
in all countries, though in different ways." The Committee then 

16 



recommends that the Department of Conservation shall administer 
"public lands, perks, territories and reservations, and enforce 
the conservation laws with rega.rd to public lands and mineral and 
water resources, except as otherwise assigned." 

The Committee then suggests a division between publicly- 
owned and privately-owned lends, and it implies, rather than states, 
that the broad distinction between the Departments of Agriculture 
and the proposed Depextment of Conservs.tion, in the matter of jur- 
isdiction over lands, shall be as between privately-owned and 
publicly-owned lands. 

However, the Committee insists that the location of par- 
ticular bureaus or functions should be "a task performed only by 
the Executive, on the basis of careful research and discussion with 
those most intimately involved." 

Against the above- sxaamari zed proposal there now rages an 
embittered attack, and one of the leading attackers, the eminent 
Gifford Pinchot, has averred, in speeches in many places, that the 
Interior Department has been, and is, a destroyer, not a conserva- 
tor - verily, a destroyer of practically everything it ca.n touch. 
Mr. Pinchot mak:es a grudging, partial exception in the case of the 
National Parks, but he refuses, for example, to recognize any of 
those far-reaching, strenuously -pressed conservation measures 
which have been dominant in Indian Affairs since 1933. He is un- 
aware, apparently, that the Soil Conservation Service originated 

17 



in the Department of the Interior or that its largest demonstration 
area today is an Indian reservation. He, and many other debaters, 
seem to he prepossessed v,lth the thotight that a conservation depart- 
ment wo-uld take unto itself the National forests and ravage them. 

Yet, act-ually, there is not a direct word said by the 
President's commission a.s to where the National forests shall he 
lodged; and when in 1S33-1934 the President had power to transfer 
hureaus practically at will, he left the United States Forest Serv- 
ice where it has been the last thirty years, under the Department 
of Agriculture. 

The formula, of the President's Committee, in itself, 
clearly -ooints toward an increasingly intimate cooperation between 
the Departments of Interior (or Conservation) and Agriculture, be- 
cause the publicly and privately-ovrned Isnds are intermingled 
throughout the nation, and their use has to be planned and their 
practical development executed in terms of watershed units, and 
this basic consideration must force all of the bureaus and juris- 
dictions, end both of the Deuartments, and other departments as 
well, to develop integra.tive arrangements reaching clear across 
bureau boundaries and departmental boxmdaries. 

The reiris.rks here made are not set down as an argument 
about a controverted proposal, but as an attempt to convey to the 
readers of "Indians At Work" a knowledge of what the President's 
Committee really has recommended. If the statement here made be 



18 



accurate - and it is - how lacking in perspective, even in rele- 
vancy, do many of the polemics sound. 

The test part of the conservation achievement of Indiaji 
Service in recent years - and it has heen a profoiind achievement 
- has been the product of a most intimate collaboration "between 
the two Secretaries, of Apiculture and Interior. Not det)artmen- 
tal rivalry hut department collaboration in conservation has been 
the unbroken experience of Indian Service for four years. 

For the rest, and really needless to say, India-ns, and 
those who know Indiaji Affairs of the present, like those who 
know wider- reaching departmental affairs, are well aware that 
Secretary Ickes is an aggressively determined and an intensely 
active conservationist. 

HEORQANIZATION NEWS 



Charter elections recently held show the following 
results: 

Yes No 

October 30 . . Forest Co-unty Potawatomi 58 6 

(Tomah, Wisconsin) 

October 30 .. Wyandotte (Shawnee Agency) 148 

November 5 .. Round Valley (Sacramento Agency) .... 62 18 

November 12 . Tuolumne (Sac and Fox Agency ) 21 1 

November 13 . Minnesota Qiippewa 1480 610 

(Consolidated Chippewa Agency) 

The following tribes recently voted for their constitu- 
tions: 

Yes No 

October 23 .. Iowa (Shawnee Agency) 19 18 

October 30 .. Stockbridge (Tomah, Wisconsin) 119 1? 

November 13 . Sac & Fox 80 76 



19 



CCC - jm WORK AT PA INBS AGSNCY . OKLAHOMA 

A compilation of descriptions and photographs of recent 
CCC work at the Pawnee Reservation, OlcLahoma with Bernard Gerdipe, 
Philip Cover, Peter New Rider, William Pappan and Claude C. Savage, 
all CCC - ID employees, as contrihutors, has been sent to the Wash- 
ington Office. Space does not permit reproducing the entire report; 
a few photographs, however, are shown below. 

CCC - ID woric at Pawnee has included the construction of 
a number of stock reservoirs and various types of soil conservation 
work, such as the building of check dams, terracing, baffle construc- 
tion, sodding work and tree plantina:-. A number of community wells 
have been built and insect control work has helped to check damage 
to crops. First-aid and safety courses have been stressed and nine- 
ty per cent of the men who took the courses passed the examinations 
and were issvied certificates of completion. 

There are five tribes re-oresented at the Pawnee jurisdic- 
tion: Pawnee, Ponca, Otoe, Kaw and Tonkawa. 





Stock Water Reservoir 
Eaw Reservation 



Bros ion Control 
Pawnee Reservation 



20 



GBOUP SA-CRIPICS AND DTOIVIDIM. SACRIFICE FOE CONSERVATION 



Two PToelDlo trites — ^Lagvma and Acoma — ^have proved the a"bil- 
ity of Indians to be conservationists. Be it remembered that these 
tribes largely are non-Snglish speaking, and that Acoma represents 
the most ancient-minded of the Indians. In both Pueblos, responsi- 
ble self-government is immemorially old; but many an anthropologist 
has believed that factionalisms within Pueblos were irreconcilable, 
and that their ancient institutions and ancient outlooks ijqpon the world 
could not meet modern, practical challenges. 

In 1935, Laguna was grazing 55", 000 sheep units on a damaged 
range ^diose carrying capacity was 15,000. Acoma was grazing 31,025 
sheep units on a damaged remge whose carrying capacity was 8,500. 
Both of these Pueblos have a minimum, only, of irrigable land, nor is 
there any way to get substantially more water on the land. Both 
Pueblos had witnessed the progressive "gutting" of their ranges. 

In both Pueblos, livestock ownership was individual, not 
tribal, and there were rich and poor livestock men. There were men 
with larger range lariorities, and men with smaller priorities. In 
brief, every complication that exists among the whites on the public 
domain may be said to have existed at Laguna and Acoma, with the im- 
portant distinction which was clearly announced to these Pvieblos in 
1935, namely: that their self-governing institutions were considered 
to be even more tjrecious than their lands, and that they would not be 
coerced in the matter of stock reduction. 

Range studies were completed, ownership of stock was de- 
termined, range betterment works were projected, and in day and night 
meetings lasting weeks, even months, all of the data was made known 
to the Lagunas and the Acomas. Then they signed range agreements 
with the Unified Piieblo Service. 

Laguna and Acoma, voluntarily, acting in their -customary 
community fashion, undertook to cut their livestock down at the rate 
of 8,000 animals a year at Lagona, and 4,505 animals a year at Acoma. 

In 1935, Laguna actually reduced its total just 8,000, and 
Acoma reduced its total 4,505. 

By the end of 1935, Laguna had cut its animal popviLation 
from 55,000 to 39,000, and Acoma from 31,025 to 22,015. 

In 1937, with diminished appropriations, government work 
had to be sharply curtailed. Soil Conservation Service work and 



21 



Indian Emergency Conservation were cut in half in the Puehlos as a 
vriaole. TJhat did Laguna and Acoma do7 

Laguna proceeded to cut its total of herds to 31,010 sheep 
units (from 55,000) and Acoma to 17,296 (from 31,025). 

Even more interesting was the method of reduction, spe- 
cifically at Acoma,. There, the whole hurden of sacrifice, so far 
as hreeding— stockj and therefore range privilege, was concerned, was 
borne by the richer livestock owners. This meant owners of more 
than 437 ewes and lambs. In this all-important detail, as in the 
matter of total reduction, it was the P'ueblo as a voliintary insti- 
tution which acted, and not the government which compelled. 

The severest of the ordeals was this most recent one of 
1937. Making plans to make necessary sacrifices is one thing; 
sternly executing the sacrifices, at the expense of a surrender of 
one's personal capital investment and one's personal advantage, is 
something else. This year, Laguna and Acoma have given up a total 
of stock nearly as great as the total which will remain when all 
reduction is finished. The success partly has been due to the use 
of patience, wisdom, and complete frankness of statement by Super- 
intendent Aberle and her staff. But principally it is evidence of 
the terrific will to live, and the practical adapt iveness, and the 
profound commrinsl loyalty of the Acomas and Lagunas. 

Tho, in the face of such results, can justifiably have 
fears as to the future of these most ancient tribes? Their life is 
as much in the futiore, as in the past. 



"A CALENDAR OF ANMJAL EVENTS IN NEl MEXICO" 



The first publication of the New Mexico Federal Writers' 
Project is a t)amphlet entitled "Calendar of Annual Events in New 
Mexico", one of the publications in the American Guide Series. It 
lists, month by month, various colorful state annual events - not 
only Indian dances and ceremonies but rodeos and frontier celebra- 
tions and various Spanish fiestas and religious ceremonies. The 
preface was written by Harry L. Hopkins, Administrator of the Works 
Progress Administration. It is illustrated with wood blocks by 
Manville Chapman and others, who worked under the Federal Arts Proj- 
ect of New Mexico. The Santa Fe Civic League and Chamber of Commerce 
are listed as sponsors. The price of the b\illetin is 25 cents. 



22 



A TORD AK)UT C00PEBA.TI ON 
By Edward Huberman 
Textbook Writer And CiuriculTun Research Worker, Indian Service 




Making a living takes 
time, takes effort. Some of us 
can spend just a little time and 
yet make a good living. Others 
of us, less skilled or less lucky, 
work and worry for practically 
twenty- four hours a day and still 
make only enough of a living bare- 
ly to keep alive. We try hard, we 
do things we think we are supposed 
to do, we sharpen our wits until 
they have a razor-edge and still 
very often we just can't seem to 
get ahead. We have tried, all 
right. Each one of us has tried, 
in his o?m way, to push himself 
ahead. Few of us get there. Why? 

There are many differ- 
ent answers to this question. One 
of them we almost never bother to 
think of. Here it is. When each 
person in a neighborhood, working for himself alone, tries to push 
himself an inch ahead, some other person frequently has to be pushed 
an inch back. Result: nobody gets anywhere. 

We don't have to look very far afield for examples. A 
group of Indian farmers in Oklahoma were recently selling their 
daily surplus milk to a certain creamery. For a time, all went 
well. The creamery sent its truck regularly, picked up the milk 
and paid promptly. But after a while, another milk purchaser came 
along and made a "proposition" to one of the farmers. The proposi- 
tion had something to do with a higher price per htmdred pounds. 
Well, the farmer agreed to change his milkman. He didn't bother to 
investigate or find out how reliable the new purchaser was. The 
promise of a hi^er price made him forget about a lot of other im- 
portant things. Two or three of his neighbors joined him in switch- 
ing over. 



S3 



The story of what happened is none too pleasant. The new 
milkman woiold come to pick vip the milk only when the roads were in 
tiptop shape. A little rain - and no milkman. When it came time 
to pay for the milk he put the Indians off axid said "Next week." 
Meanwhile, the first creamery, the old reliable, found that with 
four farmers out, there wasn't enou^ milk left in the group to 
make it worth while coming at all. After some time, the "higher 
price" milkman had paid the Indians only half of what he had prom- 
ised, and they had to sweat to get that much. Naturally they were 
not anxious to do business with him anymore and for some time all 
the surplus milk in that community was Just not being sold at all. 
The farmers, instead of sticking together, had decided to divide. 
That made matters worse for all of them. 

This is an old problem and at one time or another people 
have tried a number of ways to solve it. This article will tell 
you about one way which rarely fails, if you follow the rules. Think 
it over. It's a question of helping yo^ar neighbor and letting him 
help you. Instead of boosting yourself at his expense and having 
to suffer when he boosts himself at yours, work with him. Help him 
in some of the things he does, and take his help in working out the 
things you have to do. You will both become twice as strong as you 
were when you worked entirely alone. 

If you are a farmer, you make your horses work for you 
when you want to plow your land. You put all kinds of machinery 
to work when you cviltivate, irrigate, harvest. You even use machines 
to incubate your chicks. Yet when it comes to such an important 
part of your business as selling your farm products, you forget that 
the help of your neighbors is more powerful than the strongest ma- 
chinery. You are quite willing to go to the nearest market and ask, 
"Please, sir, how much will you give me for my eggs, or my carrots, 
or my potatoes?" You hear the answer and you sell. Then you go 
home and often find that the price you received wasn't even as much 
as it cost you to produce the eggs, or the carrots, or the potatoes. 
You really have cause to wonder whether you'll ever get ahead, that 
way. 

Of course, there is such a thing as market price. But 
how many of us stop to consider that in addition to just plain mar- 
ket price, there is "good" market price and "best" market price. 
How to get that "best" is the thing to know. 

Well, for the most part, you're not going to get that 
"best" if you take only your own produce to market, a little at a 
time. It costs money to handle faxm produce in small qioantities 
and you have to pay part of that cost when you sell one dozen eggs 
at a time, or one gallon of milk. 



24 



But if you and. ten neighbors put all your eggs together 
and taJce them to market, you're not only in line for a better price 
per dozen, but most of you save the time you used to spend running 
arotind looking for a buyer for your little "dozen at a time." Only 
one man has to go to market, not eleven. You can all taJce t\irns in 
going to market. Or if your organization, a "marketing cooperative", 
should grow, you might hire one man td do it for you every day. 

Your man might have time to do other things for you, too. 
Because you, a busy farmer, cannot always know exactly what your 
products are worth, at any special time, you would expect the man 
you and your neighbors hired, your "cooperative manager", to keep 
posted on such information. You would expect him to study all the 
forces that push prices up or p\all them down. He should know the 
grade of the product he is selling for you, and of course, he should 
find out how much the different grades are worth. Then he can ad- 
vise you how to make more money. 

When he discovers, for instance, that Grade k milk will 
bring twice as much money as Grade C milk, then you've got some- 
thing definite to work for. 

These are only a few of the ways in which you can help 
your neighbors and yourself throu^ cooperation - working together. 
If you want to learn more about cooperation, start talking about 
it to the people who live near you. Then get in touch with your 
Agency superintendent. He may have some ideas and some leaflets 
you might like to read and discuss. 



Note ; The illustration which appears on the first page 
of this article was used through the courtesy of The Cooperative 
League of the ISiited States of America - New York City, New York. 

CCC IVORKSRS HA.7E OBTAINED OUTSIDE JOBS AT MISSION AGENCY , CALIFORNIA 
By Robert A. Wehr, Senior Project Manager, 
CCC - ID, Mission Agency, California 



It is interesting to notice that several of the men who 
were working last year and who obtained experience under CCC in 
various skilled Jobs such as tractor driving, repair work, cement 
construction and other types of skilled work have secured outside 
employment at good wages. Those employers from whom we have heard 
have said that they are glad to be able to obtain the services of 
our Indians, since they are willing and competent vforkers who show 
the results of t>eir four years of CCC training. 



25 



HSVDLVING CREDIT ¥Um 



In the Novem'ber 1 issue of "Indians At Work" the status 
of Indian Organization as of October 15 was shown in detail. Credit 
activities are following closely upon completion of incorporation 
of tribes. Of the forty-four tribes now incorporated, represent- 
ing an Indian popvila,tion of 42,140, loans have been made to twenty- 
eight tribes, representing a population of 29,817, leaving sixteen 
tribes, representing a population of 12,323 who are eligible but 
who have not yet received loans. Of this number two tribes do not 
wish to borrow funds at the present time. Loans for seven tribes 
are in process of formulation and most of the remaining seven tribes 
have only recently been incorporated and will doubtless make appli- 
cations in the near future. 

In Oklahoma thirty-seven charters have been approved for 
credit associations, twenty-two of which now have approved by-laws 
and have requested loajis which are being given consideration at 
present. Forty-four loans direct from the Government to individuals 
have also been approved for Oklahoma Indians. 

Since June 30 the following commitments have been made 
to Indian corporations. 



Potawatomi Agency 

Iowa Triie $15,000 

Kickapoo Tribe 15,000 

Sac & Fox Tribe of Missouri ... 10,000 

Jicarilla Agency 

Jicarilla Apache Tribe 85,000 

Great Lakes Agency 

Lac du Flambeau Bsnd of Lake 

Superior Chippewa Indians ... 15,650 

Fort Hall Agency 

Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the 

Fort Hall Reservation 100,000 

Carson Agency 

Walker River Paiute Tribe 22,000 

Yerington Paiute Tribe 6,000 



Total $268,650 



26 



LIPE IN M IIIDUIT C.C.C . GAliP 
By Erik ¥. Allstrom, Camp Superintendent, CCC - ID 
United PuelDlos Agency - Hew Mexico 








The Ancient Ruins Of Kinishba 

Many people have asked how we live in our Indian camps. 
They want to know the difference hetween our life on Indian reser- 
vations and that of the white boys in their hxg camps. Let me tell 
you briefly something of one Indian camp. 

One difference is that our camps are smaller. Reserva- 
tion johs are often smaller, so permission was given to us early 
in the C.C.C. program to develop camps suited to the size of the 
joh to he done and to extend the ages of the men employed so as to 
malce it possible to use older able-bodied men who needed work. 

Ahove and on the following page are some pictures of a 
small fence ceujip. On the Fort Apache reservation is what is perhaps 
the largest prehistoric Indian ruin in Arizona. For several years. 



27 



I^*?^«*5i« 


^'-x ,.. ,^, 


I .__^^jj^glMggg|B 


S^I^^^S*-'* 


r' 




v«^pr Jl'^^^fS^ 


i^SS'^rJ 


■w mi mi ' i!" iii 


Kjj, 






^wunLip^Qg^^^ 


'iViJSWE^- 












- *uS 










n^^^li^ip^^^ j^^ 


jfr""'wtS,/t- ---■ 








-• -*— 


"•',. 





A Fcfor-Tent Apache Cacrp 



the Department of 
Anthropology of the 
University of Arizona 
has "been excavating 
it 1 in order to make 
new findings ahont 
the early life of man 
in Horth America. It 
was decided that it 
wonld "be a worth- 
while CCC project to 
protect these rains 
"by a fence; conse- 
quently oiir camp of 
twelve men was set 
up and we went to 
work. 



This was a four-tent camp. Three were used "by the twelve 
men for sleeping. The other was the foreman's and was used also 
as an office and as storage for extra supplies and tools. On wet 
days the cooking had to "be done inside. 



In order to maiie a lasting fence, we had to go several 
miles to find a sufficient supply of hard white cedar for posts. 
Tour of the hoys went every morning to the edge of the forest in 
the truck to cut and take out posts. 

All the posts were peeled and set in a square enclosing 
forty acres of ground. It was important that the comers he strong 
and the men were especially careful to do good work there and at 
the gateway. 

In the 
evenings after work 
and supper were 
over, the boys took 
part in 'baseTsall 
practice. Reading, 
cards, checkers and 
talking took up the 
later part of the 
evenings. On Tri- 
day afternoon or 
Saturday morning 
most of the "boys 

would go home to The Fence Crew At Worfc 

cut wood for the nert week, to irrigate and tend their gardens and 
to see something of their families. 




28 



THE STRADDLE BETVTOEN CULTTJRES 
By D'Arcy McNickle, Administrative Assistant - Office of Indian Affairs 



THE ENEMY GODS - By Oliver LaFarge. 

Ho'dghton. Mifflin Company - Price $2.50 

Why people will persist in regarding the Indian' s world 
jo-urney as an experience special and apart from the rest of the 
hvunan family, something on the picturesque side, more stagey than 
real - this has always heen a puzzle. Now, after reading Mr. La- 
Farge 's persuasive The Enemy Gods, it will he more Duzzling than 
ever if the attitude continues among people who should know "better. 

The Indian has always had "friends", and it has some- 
times seemed that the "friends" have been his worse enemies. We 
wince when we recall the days when hairy-chested frontiersmen set 
ahout systematically to rid the public domain of the vermin who 
pestered the overland trails. Colonel Chivington at Sand Creek, 
Colorado, was forthright. Vermin was vermin. But really, it was 
sufter his time that the Indian fell upon evil days. The abolition- 
ists, the humanity lovers, out of employment after the Civil War, 
found the naked, hounded red man and cuddled him close. They of- 
fered Bibles instead of bullets, and there were Indians who thou^t 
it was a poor exchange. A dead Indian, they would say, is better 
off than Mr. LaFarge 's Myron Begay (bom Ashin-Tso-n's son; Big 
Salt's son, that is), at the moment when, frenzied by the cheap 
rascality of Christian soul-saving, he stood vq3 in a kind of mis- 
sionary pep-meeting and denied his gods. 

"Dis belongs to Nayeinezgani, a so-called Slayer of 
Enemy Gods," he declared, and half -choked. After that, he really 
gave himself up to madness, - and so his tale rushes into one of 
the most moving climaxes that, I suppose, anyone will ever write, 
using the Indian as material. 

It seems obvious that LaFarge, in writing of Myron Begay 
and his Navajo hierarchy, has written a story of the hunian race 
and its tribal gods. "Sought the gods and found them," refrain 
in one of the ritual songs, is the refrain which carries through 
the book. This passion in the desert must have been old stuff 
when the Cro-Magnon were getting the spirit of things into imaged 
reality on their cavern walls. Why, then, label it as Indian or 
heathen? Why call it picturesque? Why, on the one hand, try to 
stamp it out, or, on the other, simper about it? Truly, it is 
one with the frenzy imaged by the prophets in Israel. It is in 
the stream of race consciousness. Amen to that. 



29 



The story has be«n done before, "but the iHunber of times 
it has been done knowingly, and intelligently, and authentically 
is rare indeed. This is the story of the straddle between cultures. 
Even certain Indian spokesmen who on occasion have alluded to the 
dilemma which they themselves at some time faced, have only managed 
to give it a feather headdress. It is LaFarge ' s distinction to 
have told the tale honestly and movingly, and so to have dignified 
it with human warmth. 

Myron Begay, his protagonist, comes to us as a very young 
boy completely overawed by the power and the glory of his white 
teachers. There is a certain supple willingness about him which 
catches the eye and engages the Christian interest of Mr. Butler, 
the missionary, about whom, evidently, there is enou^ elemental 
kindness really to win the boy's heart and so to make him wretched 
in those later vital moments when he tries to enter the kingdom of 
his own manhood. The painful vacillation, the final burgeoning of 
assurance are told with passion and deft insight. For one who has 
had to come to them through imagination, some of these scenes in 
the boy's life, for instance his first day at school, or his vigil 
in the presence of the coming gods long afterwards, are creative 
artistry of the rare sort. It is more than reconstruction of a 
probability; it is the living experience. 

To express a fear that readers unfamiliar with the ab^und- 
ance of Navajo spirit and strange to the ways of Indian administra- 
tion may have moments of feeling that they have lost their way in 
The Enemy Gods is not to detract from its quality. Some reviewers, 
one judges, have been rather baffled and have hinted a preference 
for Laughing Bo^. It is inevitable that the comparison should be 
made, though that is rather beside the point. This reviewer is 
satisfied that there is more of substance and of enduring emotion 
in this present work, even though it may not yield itself so easily 
to the casual reader. 

To add a final word. Indians are distinctly the gainers 
every time a book of the stature of The Enemy G-ods comes from press. 
Not Indians alone, but their teachers, the administrators of their 
affairs, white men generally, have need of a deeper perspective in 
Indieji matters. Merely thinking of Indians as emerging from savage- 
ry and being hastened on the road to salvation by our various min- 
istratioiis, never brought us closer to them in understanding. So 
we have learned. Any one reading The Enemy Gods will see clear- 
ly just why that should be. Nothing sickens mutuality like high- 
thinking. Indians have long been thinking so. What they would 
like white men to know, and what The Enemy Gods woxild make clear; 
is that there is only one humanity, and Indians are made in the 
image. Only that. 



30 



GEORGE INYO 



(Condensed From Two Articles In The Trona Pot-Ash . Trona, California) 



During his ninety-six years, George 
Inyo, who is said to be the last of the Panamint 
Tribe of Sho shone s, has seen a pageant of chajig- 
ing times such as is witnessed by few men. Born 
in Death Valley, California, near the Panamint 
Mountains in 1841, he saw the very beginnings of 
the relentless westward march of the whites. 

In the year 1849, as a boy of eight, 
he saw the white men who came behaving queerly - 
stopiDing at places where there was no food for 
their animals and no good water for themselves; 
digging holes in the dry washes; sifting the sand 
through their fingers; and moving on to dig more 
holes - always digging. Later, he saw more white 
men come who fenced in their land - as though 
there were 'not enough to go around for everyone. 




George Inyo 

(Courtesy of the 
Trona Pot-Ash. ) 



The Trhite men brought equipment with them - equipment 
such as the Indians had never seen: axes, matches, steel knives. 
They "brought money and the Indians learned its use. 

George Inyo saw the beginning of a great industry when 
he began to help a white man, John Searles, scrape white stuff 
from a dry lake bed near Trona. Not even John Searles ever 
dreamed he TTas laying the foujidation of large-scale development 
of potash, borax and other valuable salts. 

George Inyo worked for Searles, whom he loved and 
trusted, for many years; about 1870, however, he began to long 
for his old home in the Panamint Mountains. There, where new 
mines were opening, he found work bu.ilding roads and cutting 
timbers for the mines. He saw the roaring pioneer mining life 
of the little adobe torm. of Ballarat and he saw the country 
fill up with whites. 

Today, almost blind, he lives on his little ranch with 
his crippled son. His wife, whom he loved dearly, is long since 
dead; his own tine, he says, is drawing near. 



21 



SPECIAL TBACHDMA ADVISOBT COtolTIEE HOLDS FIRST MEETING 
By Dr. J. G. Townsend, Director of Health, Indian Serrice 



The future trachoma program in the Indian Service has re- 
ceived much impetus through the appointment hy the Secretary of a 
Special Trachoma Advisory Committee. This Committee, headed by Dr. 
Harry S. Gradle, of Chicago, wbo for the past year and a half has 
"been Trachoma Consultant to the Indian Service, at one dollar a 
year, consists of: 

Dr. Harry S. Gradle, Chicago, Illinois. 

Dr» Lawrence T. Post, St. Louis, Missoiiri 

Dr. William L. Benedict, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. 

Dr. Loms S. Greene, Washington, D. C. 

The first meeting of this Committee was held in the Wash- 
ington Office November 10, 1937. Meeting with the Committee were 
the following officials of the Indian Office: 

Mr, John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
Dr. J. G. Townsend, Director of Health 
Dr. L. W. White, Assistant to the Director of Health 
Dr. Polk Richards, Medical Director in Charge of 

Trachoma Activities 
Mr. Willard W. Beatty, Director of Education 
Mr. Paul L. Fickinger, Associate Director of Ediocation 
Mr. Joseph C. McCaskill, Assistant Director of Education 
Miss Georgia Collins, Senior Clerk 
Miss Edna A. Gerken, Supervisor of Health Education 
Miss Lela M. Cheney, Associate Supervisor of Indian Education 
Dr. W. W. Peters, Medical Director, Navajo Area 
Miss Elinor D. Gregg, Director of Nursing 
Miss Sallie Jeffries, Assistant Supervisor of Nursing 

The meeting lasted all day. Among the many important sub- 
jects discussed were, what the minimvm qualifications of Specialist 
Physicians should be, the responsibility of the niirse and the teacher 
in the treatment of the diseeise, the feasibility of a closer admini- 
strative relationship between the Special Physicians and the several 
agencies, the importance of keeping better and more accurate records 
in order that the problem that actually exists can be better realized 
and appreciated, as well as many other phases of this problem which 
is a major one concerning the Indian Office. 



32 



CCC - jm CMgS JN DISTOICT MMBER TWO EXCEL IN ATHLETICS 
By John Henry Mitchell, Camp Supervisor, District No. 2 



Indians are horn athletes, most of them, and the CCC - ID 
leisure- time program has given them the chance to excel in various 
sports and to display the fine qualities which go with good sports- 
manship. 

In the 1937 season the camp at Grand Portage, Minnesota 
developed a winning "basket hall team and topped the North Shore 
league, of which it was a member. The League consists of five CCC 
camps and the two largest city teams in that district. They won 
two trophies - not only the championship trophy hut also that awarded 
hy the League for the highest rating of any team on the North Shore 
in all-round sportsmanship. 

The new recreational huilding had not been constructed at 
the Grand Portage Camp when the season opened and the hoys had to 
work out their plays with pencil and paper. 

Last summer the Grand Portage Camp again excelled - hy 
winning the baseball championship of the League. 



Nett Lake Camp Makes Fine Showing 

Up in the far north country close by the Canadian border 
and near the Nett Lake Indian village, the Nett Lake Camp has been 
operating for fo\ir years. It is one of the largest Indian CCC 
camps in the country and lies in the heart of a heavily timbered 
area. Deep winter snows and its extreme isolation would mean lone- 
liness and leisure-time idleness for enrollees except for the varied 
activities planned for and by this group. A recreational building 
large enough for basket ball has proved our best investment and is 
in constant use. The camp canteen purchased a 16 mm. projector and 
shows weekly pictures. Supervised dances crowd the building once 
each month. The camp produced a strong baseball team last summer, 
which is a member of the St. Louis County League, made up from six 
CCC camps and nearby towns. 

Lyle Howell, Senior Camp Assistant, conceived the idea 
that his camp should be represented at the Golden Glove Tournament 
held last March in Minneapolis. Himself a boxer of note, Howell 
trained a team and sent his two best boxers down to the tournament. 
Although neither boy had previous training, one succeeded in going 



33 



all the way to the finals, idiere he lost only on decision. The 
winner had previously heen an enrollee at the Nett Lake Camp. 



Camp Marquette's Winning Float 

It takes two days to drive from Minneapolis to reach the 
Marquette Camp in the eastern end of the Upper Michigan Peninsula. 
One never goes there without being impressed with the beauty, clean- 
liness and homelike feeling of the camp. The Public Health Engineer 
who has inspected CCC camps in the district for three years said of 
Marquette in a recent report that "it is the best cainp I have ever 
inspected." 

The pride of enrollees for their camp is best illustrated 
by the fact that when they were invited to participate in the annual 
I^per Peninstila Pageant in 1935, they determined to send a float to 
the carnival that would do them credit. Out of more than 60 floats 
Marquette's was voted the best and was awarded the coveted $50.00 
prize. They repeated their victory in 1936 and with their second 
$50.00 they purchased a good piano for the camp. 



field Day At Lax; du Flajnbeau 

Lac du Flambeau deserves special mention in the interest 
it has taken in sponsoring recreation among the four CCC units in 
the Great Lakes Jurisdiction. A field day is held every year at 
this camp and all these groups participate. More than 2,500 people 
attend these colorful annual events. The program is varied and in- 
cludes inter-reservation baseball games, wood-chopping and wood- 
sawing contests, log-rolling and other aquatic events, a pow-wow 
and addresses by prominent speakers. The records for track gmd 
field events are improved yearly. A pow-wow and dance at night con- 
clude the annual program which is enjoyed by h\indreds of people 
from nearby communities. 



NEff PBESIDENT FOR INDIAN COUNCIL FIBE 



The Indian Council Fire, Chicago, announces that H. E. 
Wilkes, Choctaw, a native of Savanna, Oklahoma, has succeeded Will- 
iam P. Wilkerson, Cherokee, as president of that organization. 



34 



C5SYEHNE RIVER TRIBAL COUKCIL MAKES TOUR TO LEARN 
RESERVATION ASSETS AND PLANS 
By Arthur L. Holding, Range Supervisor 
Cheyenne River Agency, South Dakota 




Trital Council On Reservation Tour 
Visits Thtmder Sutte Day School 



At the in- 
vitation of Superin- 
tendent Dickens, the 
Cheyenne River Trib- 
al Council, accompa- 
nied by several of 
the Agency staff, 
made a three -day tour 
of the reservation to 
enable councilmen to 
familiaxize them- 
selves with current 
projects and with 
plans for the reser- 
vation's future de- 
velopment. The day 
schools at Four Bear, 
Moreau River, White Horse, G-reen Grass, Bear Creek, Thunder Butte, 
Iron Lightning, Red Scaffold and Cherry Creek were visited. At 
several schools, good dinners were cooked and served by the students. 
At each school the visitors met with the teacher and pupils and dis- 
cussed the work and aims of the school and the councilman represent- 
ing the school's district spoke on the problems and plans of the 
area. The irrigated gardens at Four Bear, Swan Creek, Green Grass, 
Thtmder Butte, Rattlesnake and Bridger were inspected; also the 
prospective irrigation garden sites at Moreau River and ^ite Horse. 

The road projects at Moreau River and Red Scaffold were 
visited; the large CCC reservoirs at Swan Creek, White Horse, Bear 
Creek and Rattle snak:e; and a possible proposed site for a large 
Moreau River dam above Thunder Butte. In addition, other CCC - ID 
projects such as small dams, telephone lines and range improvement 
projects were observed. 

We are convinced that this tour was of real value both to 
councilmen and to employees. Councilmen are familiar with condi- 
tions in their own districts, naturally, but some of them had had 
little chance to observe conditions on other parts of the reserva- 
tion or to know reservation-wide range conditions as a whole. One 



of our coioncilmen, in fact, who has lived on the northeast corner 
of the reservation for forty -one years, had never been to Cherry 
Creek Station in the southwest corner of the reservation. Some of 
the councilmen had never visited any of the other districts. 

Councilmen who jnade the tour were: Luke Gilbert, chairman; 
Prank Ducheneaux (representing the Agedcy district); Henry Le Beau 
(Eohertson) ; Edward Miner (flftiite Horse); Giljaert Gaxreau and Charles 
Shaving (LaPlant); Felix Benoist (Green Grass); Justin Black Eagle 
(Thunder Butte); Walter Cummings (Promise); Thomas Eagle Staiff and 
Charles In Amongst (Red Scaffold); John Black Bull (Bridger) ; John 
Little Cloud (Cherry Creek); and Albert Le Beau, Judge (represent- 
ative from loViT Bear). 



THE FOBT Bm* TRIBAL OOTOCIL 




36 



A MESSAGE FROM FOHT HALL . IDAHO 
By Frank Randall 



I have teen here on this reservation all my life. I was 
raised here - my mother used to te the interpreter. 

I am one of the oldest men among the grown men today what 
is trying to do the right thing to help the people on this reserva- 
tion. 

Since the Civil Service took effect on this reservation 
we have heen treated tetter from then on. Years ago before the 
Civil Service, the Indians' word was just like nothing and we were 
ruled by the old chiefs who are now dead and gone. Today we are 
ruled hy our council and we are getting along better than we did 
under the old chiefs and we are improving quite a hit on our reser- 
vation, especially on the farm and in stock raising. We have adopted 
the constitution by-law on this reservation, and we are progressing 
under this constitution. 

I hope later on when the yo-unger generation grows up they 
will be well educated. There are some few boys and girls that don't 
like to go to school, but later on they will look back and see where 
their big mistake was. 

I like to keep well informed of what is going on so that 
I may help my people ajid tell them what is right and what is good 
for the reservation aind also for the people. 

From the Shoshone -Ban nock TevoiDe. 



THIS YEAR'S CATTLE SALE AT FORT HALL TOPS PREVIOUS RECORDS 

At the October cattle sale held at Fort Hall, Idaho, 972 
cattle were sold at good prices. It w8,s the largest sale in the 
history of Fort Hall. 



S7 



MARY KILLS TTO'S PARTY 



By Rev. Placidus T. Sialm, S. J. 



Mary Kills Two announced the other day that she was going 
to give a feast to celebrate the baptism of her little grandchild, 
the first-born of one of her youngest daughters, Lydia. Sioux 
grandmothers have always been their grandchildren's second mother, 
the old Indians say. They have all the affection of mothers 
for the children of their sons and daughters. They naturally as- 
sume a large part of the care of the babies and their experience 
and interest is much depended upon by young mothers. 

Mary Kills Two is especially interested in this new 
"takosha" (grandchild). Althou^ she herself had a large family, 
death has claimed all her own daughters one by one, but Lydia. 
Her youngest child, Victoria, died of tuberculosis only a short 
time ago, just before the death of her husband, old Kills Two. 
Lydia and her husband, John Pew Tails, and their baby are now all 
that Mary Kills Two has left in the world. 

Maly had the feast announced beforehand, just" as the In- 
dians used to do in the old days. The Sioiix always held a naming 
ceremony a few days after a child's birth. A messenger was sent 
around the camp to announce the celebration. Friends and kinsmen 
would gather around the tepee to congratulate the proud parents, 
who would in turn feast them and give away presents. Catholic In- 
dians like Mary Kills Two, like to keep up the old custom in a 
Christian way. 

Early in the morning the old grandmother came to the new 
mission church of Our Lady of Sorrows to assist at Mass, which was 
offered for her grandchild. She piously went to the Sacraments be- 
fore beginning to get the big dinner ready. 

About ten o'clock she came and asked me if I would take 
her to the camp in my automobile to get baby Few Tails. This I was 
glad to do, for John was working on a dam up along the creek and 
his wife and baby were there. Orandma took the baby herself and we 
went back to the mission. The dinner was to be in the basement of 
the church. Everything was then about ready. Guests were coming 
in from the four directions. 

"Father, please, it will soon be time for dinner. Will 
you ring the church bell so that everybody will be here?" A few 
taps satisfied her. 



38 



Tfhen the "basement hall was well filled, the ceremonies be- 
gan. First the prayers, the songs and the speeches. Thus it was 
in the olden times. Indians expect instruction from their leaders 
and elders whenever there is a gathering. The speakers begin after 
a song. The missionary is expected, of coiirse, to speak first. He 
tells them some of the parables of our Lord, iriiich they all love to 
hear repeated and explained. The stories of the Gospel are never 
old, like their own stories, which are told and retold time after 
time and are always listened to with the same interest. 

Next we all say some prayers in Sioux. Then the catechist 
speaks. After him, both men and women are called upon to say some- 
thing too. Indian gatherings of this kind are real schools of in- 
struction for young and old. It was thus that they passed on their 
tribal lore, their beliefs, their experience, renowned deeds of 
their heroes, and now, their Catholic practices and the memory of 
the good old ueople. 

IText, grandma rose VBp and took her "takosha" around to 
all of the guests, so that everyone might shake hands with the 
smiling little baby. She was happy and -oroud as all her friends 
touched the baby's hand in pledge, of friendship. The old ties of 
blood and friendship are still strong among these people and mean 
much to them. 

Finally, the meal began. The waiters filled plates and 
CTOs with plenty of good substantial food. Enovigh was left to fill 
buckets, which guests could take home for another good meal. TOien 
pots and kettles were eopty, everybody wskp happy and thankful. 
Prayers after dinner were not forgotten. Over a hundred people 
had been fed, hungry people. No birthday party could have been 
finer. This was indeed the spiritual birthday party of the child; 
its baptism is what had moved the grandmother to give this feast 
to her friends. Reprinted from " The Indian Sentinel ." 

FIRST ANNUAL H3PI FAIR HELD AT ORAIBI . ARIZQM 

The Hopi Indians held their first fair at the new Oraibi 
School on October 22. Exhibits included sheep, horses, mules, poultry, 
farm crops, examples of baking, canning, sewing, and arts and crafts 
work; and also a baby contest. 

Competition was especially keen in the class for saddled 
horses. Fine com was exhibited among other foodstuffs and there 
was an interesting group of entries for colored beans. Superinten- 
dent Button writes that the Hopis are already talking of the fair 
they will have next year. 

39 



NAVAJO - HOP I HEALTH PERSONNEL MEET 




Twenty -one physicians, 22 nurses and 19 others attended 
the largest medical- nursing conference ever held in the Navajo-Eopi 
areas on September 25 and 26, at Winslow, Arizona. 

Under the leadership of Dr. Estella Ford Warner, Medical 
Director, District No. 8, Albuquerque, who had conducted a three- 
weeks' svirvey during which time she lived and worked with the vari- 
ous field nurses, the very importsint subject of Public Health Niirs- 
ing in Navajolajid was discussed in terms of objectives, survey and 
future policy. Dr. Frank J. Bullard led the discussion on dental 
problems in Navajo-Hopi area. Through the courtesy of Mr. Park, 
manager of the Rialto Theater, the American Medical Association- 
United States Public Health Service ei^t-reel sotmd film "Syphilis" 
was shown on Sunday morning as well as several other 16-millimeter 
films secured by Dr. Paul Vietzke. 

This gathering was singularly successful in promoting un- 
derstanding of common problems and esprit de corps . 



40 



N0TL5 FHOM WttKLY 
CIVILIAN C0N5LRVAT10N 



PR0GRt55 REPOeTi OF 
C0RP5 ~ INDIAN DIVISION 



Fire Season Over At Yakima (Wa- 
shington ) The fire season has been 
officially closed - much to the joy 
of the enrollees who no longer have 
to take a chance of remaining in 
camp on "fire duty" over the week- 
end. Except for a certain few who 
must remain in camp, all of the boys 
may now go to town together. 

The weather has taken a change 
toward rain, making a f\irther reduc- 
tion in fire hazards. If the damp- 
ness continues, it will be only a 
short while before roadside burning 
will begin. Right now, most of the 
crew is piling the brush along the 
roads in preparation for the burn- 
ing and are only waiting for the 
ri^t conditions to start the burn- 
ing. Carl War d, Jo reman . 

Safety Digcusgion At Colorado 
River ( Arizona ) Last Thursday aom- 
ing a safety discussion was held. 
Each enrollee present told idiat care- 
less aistakes be had made during the 
week which mi^t have caused an ac- 
cident and each agreed not to make 
the same mistake again. Forrest M. 
Parker . 

Activities At Taholah ( Washing - 
ton ) Due to the excessive amount of 
rain which we have had here, it has 
been necessary to do a lot of work 
in order to keep the channel clear 
of floating debris. 

During their leisure time the 
boys try their luck at fishing and 
when lucky, a fish "feed" is very 
enjoyable. Sunday a couple of the 
boys caught a mess of trout and we 
had them for dinner. George Cummings . 



Dam Construction At Salem In - 
dian School ( Oregon ) The weather 
has made conditions for working on 
Project #17 fair. Dam #4 has pre- 
sented several Tinusufil problems. 
We have been crowded for space and 
it has been necessary to go down 
several additional feet to find a 
solid natural foundation. About 
40,000 gallons of water seepage had 
to be pumped out. Fifteen cubic 
yards of brown sandy clay was exca- 
vated. Richard H. Allen . 

Well Construction At Potawat- 
omi ( Kansas ) One well has been 
completed on the Kickapoo Reserva- 
tion and the well crew is now work- 
ing on the Charles Green Well. 

The other crews on the Kicka- 
poo have been uncovering rock to 
be q-uarried for structures in ter- 
race outlets and walling of wells 
under construction. The major por- 
tion of the Kawkeka-Creen 160 acres 
now being terraced will be drained 
into a ■uniform 75-foot sodded chan- 
nel which the men are now construc- 
ting. We hope to utilize this 
grassed outlet to serve as a ter- 
race outlet and at the same time 
produce a mixture of brome grass 
and alfalfa. A minimum of struc- 
tures will be built in this area. 
P. Everett Sperry . 

First-Aid Classes Held At 
Sells ( Arizona ) The losual first- 
aid class was held with an attend- 
ance of twenty-one. The class is 
getting along veiy well and the 
only thing that is slowing us up 
is the lack of first-aid manuals. 
James H. Pemberton. 



41 



Truck Trail Maintenance At Tu - 
lalip ( Washington ) A few men are 
ene^iged in maintenance work on Proj- 
ect #21 which consists of cutting 
small hroadleaf sprouts and dispos- 
ing of the year's accumulation of 
debris. A good showing is "being 
made, considering the number of men 
engaged on the project. 

The trail has recently been 
maintained with grade" and some cul- 
verts were installed where drainage 
was inadequate. This will put the 
road in excellent condition for the 
winter months. 

A few men are continuing work 
on Project #20 which consists of 
surface clearing in the timber. This 
will make a fine park to be adjacent 
to the cemetery. Theodore Lozeau . 

Blackbird Hood Control Project 
Progressing At Winnebago ( Nebraska ) 
This week's work has been concen- 
trated on getting the ground clear 
of stumps and blading ground for 
spoil Banks. The crews have advanced 
very rapidly. Owing to various de- 
posits of silt, some of the grubbing 
was to a depth of four feet before 
enough root was exposed to permit 
of the dynamite crew to load. The tim- 
ber on the bench was mostly hard wood 
and will require more powder to re- 
move. Approximately 4,000 feet of 
line will be ready for the draglines 
this coming week. 

The building crew has been very 
busy constructing a bunk -house for 
the machine operators. The building 
will be 38' x 18 ' and p'rovide ade- 
quate room for the men. The materi- 
al is being sawed from logs taken 



from the ditch line. Ideal weath- 
er conditions contribute much to 
the progress of the work. Glenn 
W. Brownrigg, Machine Operator . 

Ideal Weather Condit ions At 
Keshena ( Wisconsin ) Mother Nature 
has favored us with a beautiful In- 
dian sumnffir and the natural results 
of working under such ideal condi- 
tions can easily be seen in the 
progress of the projects. Walter 
Sidlington . Project Manager . 

Truck Trail Completed At Fort 
Totten ( North Dakota ) The grading 
on Project #67C, East End Truck 
Trail, was completed during the 
past week but will have to be gone 
over again as soon as the roadbed 
settles. We are now reshaping 
Graham's Island Truck Trail in or- 
der to have it ready for graveling 
which is to be done soon. Christian 
A. Huber , Junior Engineer . 

Activities At Consolidated 
Chippewa ( Minnesota ) A safety 
meeting for the entire camp was 
held Friday night. New regulations 
regarding injury and illness reports 
were explained to the enrollees and 
other safety problems were discussed. 
A new committee for leisure-time ac- 
tivities was elected at the close of 
the meeting. 

The Lutheran minister of Silver- 
dale conducted religious services 
in the recreation hall Sunday morn- 
ing. Both Protestant and Catholic 
services are now held re^rularly at 
this camp. 

Organized basket ball practice 
was started Friday night. With only 



42 



one regvlax hold-over from last 
year's fast team, it will "be nec- 
essary to TDuild -up an entirely 
new team. Several toys from last 
year's crew teams have shown marked 
improvement and it will be on these 
toys that o\ir hopes will be pinned, 
.e E. Howell . 

Track 'Erail Maintenance At 
Choctaw-Chickasaw Sanatorium (Ok- 
lahoma ) Truck trail maintenance 
has continued this week on Buffalo 
Mountain with very ^ood progress. 
The work still consists of filling 
in washes, cuts, opening up of 
ditches and so forth. 

This trail was in very bad 
condition due to the heavy rains 
which caused considerable washing 
and cutting vp of the trail, fill- 
ing -up ditches in places and stop- 
page of ciiLvert drains. It might 
be necessary to install some addi- 
tional culverts to afford better 
drainage and thus avoid some of 
the damage caused by heavy rains. 

We are experiencing some very 

pleasant Autumn weather and the 
forests on and near the Sanatorium 
Reserve with their leaves of yellow, 
brown and red blended with the many 
evergreen pines, make a most beauti- 
ful and colorful background. Dr . 
Willia m E. Van Cleave, Superinten - 
dent. 

From Pawnee ( Oklahoma ) The 
boys dug some dam sites and the ex- 
cavation amounted to 21 cubic yards. 
77e were moved to the Blue Pond to 
quarry rock for crashing purposes. 
This job consisted of gathering sur- 
face rock and putting it in piles so 
that the trucks could get it for 
ha,ialing. We enjoyed a speech given 



by our new Safety Advisor and Proj- 
ect Manager on Thursday afternoon. 
The topics covered minor injuries 
and how to protect them. The safe- 
ty cry here at Kaw Reservation is 
OBSERVE t Our byword or slogan is 
BE CAREFUL ! William Kekahbah , 
Leader . 

Activities At Navajo ( Arizona ) 
Chin Lee ; Our camp is being 
improved gradually. This week our 
work consisted of providing the few 
buildings with water lines and hy- 
drants which are badly needed. The 
boys who are handy with hammers and 
saws have been busy giving the final 
touches to our living quarters. 

A temporary camp was erected 
in Gallup to care for enrollees en- 
gaged in the \znloading and ground- 
ing of telephone poles for the coqi- 
pletion of the Chin Lee, Round Rook, 
Rock Point, Lukachukai lines. Two 
carloads were received (700 in num- 
ber) of which 500 were grounded. Con- 
struction will again start after re- 
ceipt of two more carloads of poles. 
We hope to complete the lines to 
the isolated points mentioned above, 
before heavy winter sets in. We 
will have to step on it as there 
are 35 miles of line to construct 
before completion. Carl Bartels , 
Telephone Foreman . 

One trail locator and one jun- 
ior assistant to the technician are 
making a- topographic survey of the 
land to be irrigated under the Luka- 
chukai Diversion Dam. The work is 
being done with plane table and 
will be used in the location of 
ditches and subjugation of the land. 
The area being mapped covers five or 
six hundred acres and is quite ir- 
regular in shape and slope. All 



43 



except the fields under cultivation 
are covered with giant sage which 
is very difficult to work in. 

The other three members of 
the engineering group included in 
this report have been working on 
plans for the proposed Chin Lee Dam 
and head works which are still in 
the process of completion, M. M. 
Hutchinson , Assistant Engineer . 

Visitors At Uintah And Ouray 
( Utah ) Much time was spent this 
week in hauling posts to the fence 
line above Neola. Some 300 posts 
were set by the crew working on 
Project #37 this week. 

Hidden Camp was recently pleas- 
antly surprised by a visit from Com- 
missioner Collier, Superintendent C. 
Wright, Mr. Caywood, Mr. Andrews 
and Mr. TTershing, the Forester of 
this reservation. Mr. Collier seemed 
well-pleased with the camp. 

Project #199, consisting of work 
on camp grounds, is nearly completed. 
About 90 per cent of the job is at 
present visible, with but a few more 
days to be spent on the job. J. Nash . 

Brid ge Construction At Great 
Lakes ( Wisconsin ) Hxcavation work 
was continued on the bridge construc- 
tion. Some difficulty was encount- 
ered by cave-ins caused by seepage wa- 
ter. The placing of concrete forms was 
started last week and we hope to have 
the footings in the first part of next 
week without any further mishaps. 

Construction of the truck trail 
was also continued with a reduced crew, 
due to the fact that some of the men 



were placed on the bridge project. 
Many rocks were encountered on the 
summit of the only high hill on this 
trail. James Gordon , Senior Foreman . 

Activities At Five Tribes (Ok- 
lahoma ) We have had a wonderful 
week for work. Everyone enjoying 
the good weather seems to have taken 
advantage of it and is doing some 
mighty good work. 

The fencing crew made good prog- 
ress, completing almost a mile of 
fence. The clearing crew didn't do 
so badly, either. They made good 
headway although they had to work in 
some very rough spots. The grading 
crew st)ent most of the week bull- 
dozing and doing rough grading. The 
culvert crew is making good advance- 
ment. They completed about two cul- 
verts and have done the excavation 
for another. 

If the weather continues to 
stay as it has the oast week, we will 
be able to make some progress on 
this project. B. C. Palmer . 

Setting fence posts during the 
past week has been the order of work 
on Project #9.1 at the Sequoyah 
Training School. The fence line 
looks like a regiment of soldiers 
lined up for inspection, with not 
one post out of line, even a frac- 
tion of an inch. Walter _S. Johnson . 

We have had fine weather for 
clearing and grubbing and grad- 
ing and the enrollees of this camp 
have completed two miles of truck 
trails this past week. Floyd Lay , 
Clerk. 



44 



A MESa^(^ FROM FOHI HALL . IHAHO 
By Frank Sandall 



I have teen here on this reservation all my life. I was 
raised here - iny mother used to he the interpreter. 

I am one of the oldest men among the grown men today what 
is trying to do the right thing to help the people on this reserva- 
tion. 

Since the Civil Service took effect on this reservation 
we have heen treated better from then on. Years ago before the 
Civil Service, the Indians' word was just like nothing and we were 
ruled by the old chiefs who are now dead and gone. Today we are 
ruled by our council and we are getting along better than we did 
Tonder the old chiefs and we are improving quite a bit on our reser- 
vation, especially on the farm and in stock raising. We have adopted 
the constitution by-law on this reservation, and we are progressing 
■under this constitution. 

I hope later on when the yo-unger generation grows up they 
will be well educated. There are some few boys and girls that don't 
like to go to school, but later oh they will look back and see where 
their big mistake was. 

I like to keep well informed of what is going on so that 
I may help my people and tell them what is right and what is good 
for the reservation and also for the people. 

From the Shoshone-Bannock Tevot)e. 



THIS YEAJt'S CATTLE SALE AT FORT HALL TOPS PREVIOUS RECORDS 

At the October cattle sale held at Fort Hall, Idaho, 972 
cattle were sold at good prices. It ws,s the largest sale in the 
history of Fort Hall. 



37 



MART KILLS TWO'S PARTY 



By Rev. Placidus .?. Sialm, S. J. 



Mary Kills Two announced the other day that she was going 
to give a feast to celebrate the haptism of her little grandchild, 
the first-horn of one of her youngest daughters, Lydia. Sioux 
grandmothers have always heen their grandchildren's second mother, 
the old Indians say. They have all the affection of mothers 
for the children of their sons and daughters. They naturally as- 
sume a large part of the care of the hahies and their experience 
and interest is much depended upon by yoimg mothers. 

Mary Kills Two is especially interested in this new 
"takosha" (grandchild). Althou^ she herself had a large family, 
death has claimed all her own daughters one by one, but Lydia. 
Her youngest child, Victoria, died of tuberculosis only a short 
time ago, just before the death of her husband, old Kills Two. 
Lydia and her husband, John Few Tails, and their baby are now sill 
that Mary Kills Two has left in the world. 

Mary had the feast announced beforehand, just' as the In- 
dians used to do in the old days. The Sioux always held a naming 
ceremony a few days after a child's birth. A messenger was sent 
around the camp to announce the celebration. Friends and kinsmen 
would gather around the tepee to congratulate the proud parents, 
who would in txirn feast them and give away presents. Catholic In- 
dians like Mary Kills Two, like to keep up the old custom in a 
Christian way. 

Early in the morning the old grandmother came to the new 
mission church of Our Lady of Sorrows to assist at Mass, which was 
offered for her grandchild. She piously went to the Sacraments be- 
fore beginning to get the big dinner ready. 

About ten o'clock she came and asked me if I would take 
her to the camp in my automobile to get baby Fsw Tails. This I was 
glad to do, for John was working on a dam up along the creek and 
his 7/ife and baby were there. Grandma took the baby herself and we 
went back to the mission. The dinner was to be in the basement of 
the church. Everything was then about ready. Guests were coming 
in from the four directions. 

"Father, please, it will soon be time for dinner. Will 
you ring the church bell so that everybody will be here?" A few 
taiDs satisfied her. 



38 



Tfhen the basement hall was well filled, the ceremonies be- 
gan. First the prayers, the songs and the speeches. Thus it was 
in the olden times. Indians expect instruction from their leaders 
and elders whenever there is a gathering. The st)eakers begin after 
a song. The missionary is expected, of course, to speak first. He 
tells them some of the parables of our Lord, ^ich they all love to 
hear repeated and explained. The stories of the Gospel are never 
old, like their own stories, wtiich are told and retold time after 
time and are always listened to with the same interest. 

Next we all say some prayers in Sioux. Then the catechist 
speaks. After him, both men and women are called upon to say some- 
thing too. Indian gatherings of this kind are real schools of in- 
struction for young and old. It was thus that they passed on their 
tribal lore, their beliefs, their experience, renowned deeds of 
their heroes, and now, their Catholic practices and the memory of 
the good old people. 

Next, grandma rose up eind took her "takosha" around to 
all of the guests, so that everyone might shake hands with the 
smiling little baby. She was happy and proud as all her friends 
touched the baby's hand in pledge, o-t friendship. The old ties of 
blood and friendship are still strong among these people and mean 
much to them. 

Finally, the meal began. The waiters filled plates and 
cvqps with plenty of good substantial food. EnoTigh was left to fill 
buckets, which guests could take home for another good meal. When 
pots and kettles were empty, everybody w»p happy and thankful. 
Prayers after dinner were not forgotten. Over a hundred people 
haxL been fed, hungry people. No birthday party could have been 
finer. This was indeed the spiritual birthday party of the child; 
its baptism is what had moved the grandmother to give this feast 
to her friends. Reprinted from " The Indian Sentinel ." 

« * « « * 
FIRST ANNUAL HDP I FAIR HELD AJ ORAIBI . ARIZONA 

The Eopi Indians held their first fair at the new Oraibi 
School on October 22. Exhibits included sheep, horses, mules, poultry, 
farm crops, examples of baking, canning, sewing, and arts and crafts 
work; and also a baby contest. 

Competition was especially keen in the class for saddled 
horses. Fine com was exhibited among other foodstuffs and there 
was an interesting group of entries for colored beans. Sroerinten- 
dent Button writes that the Hopis are already talking of the fair 
they will have next year. 

39 



NAVAJO - HOP I HEALTH PERSONNEL MEET 




Twenty -one physicians, 22 nurses and 19 others attended 
the largest medical- nursing conference ever held in the Navajo-Hopi 
areas on Septemher 25 and 26, at Winslow, Arizona. 

Under the leadership of Dr. Estella Ford Warner, Medical 
Dir*(ctor, District No. 8, Alhuquerque, who had conducted a three- 
weeks' survey during which time she lived and worked with the vari- 
ous field nurses, the very important suhject of Public Health Nurs- 
ing in Navajola-nd was discussed in terms of objectives, survey and 
future policy. Dr. Frank J. Bullard led the discussion on dental 
problems in Navajo-Kopi area. Through the courtesy of Mr. Park, 
manager of the Rialto Theater, the American Medical Association- 
United States Public Health Service ei^t-reel sound film "Syphilis" 
was shown on Sunday morning as well as several other 16-millimeter 
films secured by Dr. Paul Vietzke. 

This gathering was singularly successful in promoting un- 
derstanding of common problems and esprit de corDS . 



40 



N0TL5 mOH WLEKLY PROGEE.5^ REPORTS OF 
CIVILIAN COM5LRVATiON C0RP5 ~ INDIAN DIVISION 



Fire Season Over At Yakima (Wa- 
shington ) The fire season has heen 
officially closed - much to the joy 
of the enrollees who no longer have 
to take a chance of remaining in 
camp on "fire duty" over the week- 
end. Except for a certain few who 
must remain in camp, all of the hoys 
may now go to town together. 

The weather has taken a change 
toward rain, making a further redxic- 
tion in fire hazards. If the damp- 
ness continues, it will he only a 
short while hefore roadside burning 
will hegin. Right now, most of the 
crew is piling the hrush along the 
roads in preparation for the burn- 
ing and are only waiting for the 
ri^t conditions to start the blam- 
ing. Carl Ward, To reman . 

Safety DiycuegJon At Colorado 
River ( Arizona ) Last Thursday morn- 
ing a safety discussion was held. 
Each enrollee present told what care- 
less mistakes he had made during the 
week which mi^t have caused an ac- 
cident and each agreed not to make 
the same mistake again. Forrest M. 
Parker . 

Activities At Taholah ( Washing - 
ton ) Due to the excessive amount of 
rain which we have had here, it has 
been necessary to do a lot of work 
in order to keep the channel clear 
of floating debris. 

During their leisure time the 
boys try their luck at fishing and 
when lucky, a fish "feed" is very 
enjoyable. Sunday a couple of the 
boys caught a mess of trout and we 
had them for dinner. George Cummings . 



Dam Construction At Salem In - 
dian School ( Oregon ) The weather 
has made conditions for working on 
Project #17 fair. Dam #4 has pre- 
sented several unusiial problems. 
We have been crowded for space and 
it has been necessary to go down 
several additional feet to find a 
solid natural foundation. About 
40,000 gallons of water seepage had 
to be pumped out. Fifteen cubic 
yards of brown sandy clay was exca- 
vated. Richard E. Allen . 

Well Construction At Potawat- 
omi ( Kansas ) One well has been 
completed on the Kickapoo Reserva- 
tion and the well crew is now work- 
ing on the Charles Green Well. 

The other crews on the Kicka- 
poo have been micovering rock to 
be quarried for strvictures in ter- 
race outlets and walling of wells 
under construction. The major por- 
tion of the Kawkeka-Green 160 acres 
now being terraced will be drained 
into a uniform 75-foot sodded chan- 
nel which the men are now construc- 
ting. We hope to utilize this 
grassed outlet to serve as a ter- 
race outlet and at the same time 
produce a mixture of brorae grass 
and alfalfa. A minimum of struc- 
tures will be built in this area. 
P. Everett Sperry . 

First-Aid Classes Held At 
Sells ( Arizona ) The usToal first- 
aid class was held with an attend- 
ance of twenty-one. The class is 
getting along veiy well and the 
only thing that is slowing tis up 
is the lack of first-aid manuals. 
James H. Pemberton. 



41 



Triick: Trail Maintenance At Tu - 
lalip ( Washington ) A few men are 
ene:aged in maintenance work on Proj- 
ect #21 which consists of cutting 
small hroadleaf sprouts and dispos- 
ing of the year's accumulation of 
detris. A good showing is "being 
made, considering the number of men 
engaged on the project. 

Hie trail has recently "been 
maintained with grade-" and some cul- 
verts were installed where drainage 
was inadequate. This will put the 
road in excellent condition for the 
winter months. 

A few men are continiiing work 
on Project #20 which consists of 
surface clearing in the timber. This 
will maike a fine park to be adjacent 
to the cemetery. Theodore Lozeau. 

Blackbird flood Control Project 
Progressing At Winnebago ( Nebraska ) 
This week's work has been concen- 
trated on getting the ground clear 
of stumps and blading ground for 
spoil Banks. The crews have advanced 
very rapidly. Owing to various de- 
posits of silt, some of the grubbing 
was to a depth of four feet before 
enough root was exposed to permit 
of the dynamite crew to load. The tim- 
ber on the bench was mostly hard wood 
and will require more powder to re- 
move. Approximately 4,000 feet of 
line will be ready for the draglines 
this coming week. 

The building crew has been very 
busy constructing a bunk -house for 
the machine operators. The "building 
will be 38' x 18' and pTovide ade- 
qi:iate room for the men. The materi- 
al is being sawed from logs taken 



from the ditch line. Ideal weath- 
er conditions contribute much to 
the progress of the work. Glenn 
W. Brownr igg. Machine Operator . 

Ideal Weather Conditions At 
Keshena ( Wisconsin ) Mother Nature 
has favored us with a beaut if liL In- 
dian summer and the natural results 
of working under such ideal condi- 
tions can easily be seen in the 
progress of the projects. Walter 
Ridlington , Project Manager . 

Truck Trail Completed At Fort 
Totten (Nbrth Dakota ) The grading 
on Project #67C, East End Truck 
Trail, was completed during the 
past week but will have to be gone 
over again as soon as the roadbed 
settles. We are now reshaping 
(Jraham's Island Truck Trail in or- 
der to have it ready for graveling 
which is to be done soon. Christian 
A. Huber , Junior Engineer . 

Activities At Consolidated 
Chippewa ( Minnesota ) A safety 
meeting for the entire camp was 
held Friday night. New regulations 
regarding injury and illness reports 
were explained to the enroHees and 
other safety problems were discussed. 
A new committee for leisure-time ac- 
tivities was elected at the close of 
the meeting. 

The Lutheran minister of Silver- 
dale conducted religious services 
in the recreation hall Sunday morn- 
ing. Both Protestant and Catholic 
services are now held regularly at 
this camp. 

Organized basket ball practice 
was started Friday night. With only 



42 



one regular hold-over from last 
year's fast team, it will be nec- 
essary to build up an entirely 
new team. Several boys from last 
year's crew teams have shown marked 
improvement and it will be on these 
boys that our hopes will be pinned. 
Lyle E. Howell . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At 
Choctaw-Chickasaw Sanatorium (Ok- 
lahoma ) Truck trail maintenance 
has continued this week on Buffalo 
Mountain with very good progress. 
The work still consists of filling 
in washes, cuts, opening up of 
ditches and so forth. 

This trail was in very bad 
condition due to the heavy rains 
which caused considerable washing 
and cutting up of the trail, fill- 
ing up ditches in places and stop- 
page of culvert drains. It might 
be necessary to install some addi- 
tional culverts to afford better 
drainage and thus avoid some of 
the damage caused by heavy rains. 

We are experiencing some very 
pleasant Autumn weather and the 
forests on and near the Sfmatoriiim 
Reserve with their leaves of yellow, 
brown and red blended with the many 
evergreen pines, make a most beauti- 
ful and colorful background. Dr . 
Willia m E. Van Cleave, Superinten- 
dent. 

From Pawnee ( Oklahoma ) The 
boys dug some dam sites and the ex- 
cavation amounted to 21 cubic yards. 
We were moved to the Blue Pond to 
quarry rock for crashing purposes. 
This job consisted of gathering sur- 
face rock and putting it in piles so 
that the trucks could get it for 
ha,ijling. We enjoyed a speech given 



by our new Safety Advisor and Proj- 
ect Manager on Thursday afternoon. 
The topics covered minor injuries 
and how to protect them. The safe- 
ty cry here at Kaw Reservation is 
OBSERVE t Our byword or slogan is 
BE CAHSFUL l William Kekahbah . 
Leader . 

Activities At Navajo ( Arizona ) 
Chin Lee ; Our camp is being 
improved gradually. This week our 
work consisted of providing the few 
buildings with water lines and hy- 
drants which are badly needed. The 
boys who are handy with hammers and 
saws have been busy giving the final 
touches to our living q'uarters. 

A temporary camp was erected 
in Gallup to care for enrollees en- 
gaged in the unloading and ground- 
ing of telephone poles for the com- 
pletion of the C3iin Lee, Round Rook, 
Rock Point, Liikachukai lines. Two 
carloads were received (700 in num- 
ber) of which 500 were grounded. Con- 
struction will again start after re- 
ceipt of two more carloads of poles. 
We hope to complete the lines to 
the isolated -ooints mentioned above, 
before heavy winter sets in. We 
will have to step on it as there 
are 35 miles of line to construct 
before completion. Carl Bartels , 
Telephone Foreman . 

One trail locator and one jun- 
ior assistant to the technician are 
making a- topographic survey of the 
land to be irrigated \irLder the Luka- 
chukai Diversion Dam. The work is 
being done with plane table and 
will be used in the location of 
ditches and subjugation of the land. 
The area being mapped covers five or 
six hundred acres and is quite ir- 
regular in shape and slope. All 



43 



except the fields under cultivation 
are covered with giant sage which 
is very difficult to work in. 

The other three members of 
the engineering group included in 
this report have been working on 
plans for the proposed Chin Lee Dam 
and head works which are still in 
the process of completion. M. M. 
Hutchinson , Assistant Engineer . 

Visitors At Uintah And Ouray 
( Utah ) Much time was spent this 
week in hauling posts to the fence 
line above Neola. Some 300 posts 
were set by the crew working on 
Project #37 this week. 

Hidden Camp was recently pleas- 
antly surprised by a visit from Com- 
missioner Collier, Suoerintendent C. 
Wright, Mr. Caywood, Mr. Andrews 
and Mr. Wershing, the Forester of 
this reservation. Mjr. Collier seemed 
well -pleased with the camp. 

Project #199, consisting of work 
on camp grounds, is nearly completed. 
About 90 per cent of the job is at 
present visible, with but a. few more 
days to be spent on the job. J. Nash . 

Brid ge Construction At Great 
Lakes ( Wisconsin ) Excavation work 
was continued on the bridge construc- 
tion. Some difficulty was encount- 
ered by cave-ins caused by seepage wa- 
ter. The placing of concrete forms was 
started last week and we hope to have 
the footings in the first part of next 
week without any further mishaps. 

Construction of the truck trail 
was also continued with a reduced crew, 
due to the fact that some of the men 



were placed on the bridge project. 
Many rocks were encoimtered on the 
svmimit of the only high hill on this 
trail. James Gordon , Senior Foreman . 

Activities At Five Tribes (Ok- 
lahoma ) We have had a wonderful 
week for work. Everyone enjoying 
the good weather seems to have taken 
advantage of it and is doing some 
mighty good work. 

The fencing crew made good prog- 
ress, completing almost a mile of 
fence. The clearing crew didn't do 
so badly, either. They made good 
headway althoTigh they had to work in 
some very rough spots. The grading 
crew SDent most of the week bull- 
dozing and doing rough grading. The 
culvert crew is making good advance- 
ment. They completed about two ctoI- 
verts and have done the excavation 
for another. 

If the weather continues to 
stay as it has the nast week, we will 
be able to make some progress on 
this project. B. C. Palmer . 

Setting fence posts during the 
past week has been the order of work 
on Project #9.1 at the Sequoyah 
Training School. The fence line 
looks like a regiment of soldiers 
lined vip for inspection, with not 
one post out of line, even a frac- 
tion of an inch. Walter _S. Johnson . 

We have had fine weather for 
clearing and grubbing and grad- 
ing and the enrollees of this camp 
have completed two miles of truck 
trails this past week. Floyd Lay, 
Clerk. 



44 



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